[翻译技巧]Paradigm Shift是什么,以及它的译法

http://www.taketheleap.com/define.html WHAT IS A PARADIGM SHIFT? In 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolution, and fathered, defined and popularized the concept of "paradigm shift" (p.10). Kuhn argues that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a "series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions", and in those revolutions "one conceptual world view is replaced by another". Think of a Paradigm Shift as a change from one way of thinking to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis. It just does not happen, but rather it is driven by agents of change. For example, agriculture changed early primitive society. The primitive Indians existed for centuries roaming the earth constantly hunting and gathering for seasonal foods and water. However, by 2000 B.C., Middle America was a landscape of very small villages, each surrounded by patchy fields of corn and other vegetables. Agents of change helped create a paradigm-shift moving scientific theory from the Plolemaic system (the earth at the center of the universe) to the Copernican system (the sun at the center of the universe), and moving from Newtonian physics to Relativity and Quantum Physics. Both movements eventually changed the world view. These transformations were gradual as old beliefs were replaced by the new paradigms creating "a new gestalt" (p. 112). Likewise, the printing press, the making of books and the use of vernacular language inevitable changed the culture of a people and had a direct affect on the scientific revolution. Johann Gutenberg's invention in the 1440's of movable type was an agent of change. Books became readily available, smaller and easier to handle and cheap to purchase. Masses of people acquired direct access to the scriputures. Attitudes began to change as people were relieved from church domination. Similarly, agents of change are driving a new paradigm shift today. The signs are all around us. For example, the introduction of the personal computer and the internet have impacted both personal and business environments, and is a catalyst for a Paradigm Shift. We are shifting from a mechanistic, manufacturing, industrial society to an organic, service based, information centered society, and increases in technology will continue to impact globally. Change is inevitable. It's the only true constant. In conclusion, for millions of years we have been evolving and will continue to do so. Change is difficult. Human Beings resist change; however, the process has been set in motion long ago and we will continue to co-create our own experience. Kuhn states that "awareness is prerequisite to all acceptable changes of theory" (p. 67). It all begins in the mind of the person. What we perceive, whether normal or metanormal, conscious or unconscious, are subject to the limitations and distortions produced by our inherited and socially conditional nature. However, we are not restricted by this for we can change. We are moving at an accelerated rate of speed and our state of consciousness is transforming and transcending. Many are awakening as our conscious awareness expands.     转载自: http://www.qinyu.net/2003/11/paradigm_shift.html 风险投资与Paradigm Shift Paradigm Shift的译法有很多,可以翻译为“思维习惯的转移”或“思维变迁”,hanyufen在她的Blog心灵小屋中翻译为“范式转换”,这个词可以用在很多地方,可以代表不同的意义。在VC(风险投资)领域中,Paradigm Shift是极为重要的,说其为灵魂也不为过。... 美国硅谷风险投资家李国麟先生称“Paradigm Shift”为命律转移,我很赞同这个译法。Paradigm—命律,是一种长期形成的思维轨迹及思考模式。Paradigm Shift就是指该价值观和习惯的改变和转移。科技的价值和成功常常与命律转移息息相关。为什么说命律转移是风险投资的灵魂呢?带有命律转移潜质的项目一般来讲都是创新模式的项目,没有成功先例,有很大的风险。但如果成功,就会带来巨大价值回报,这也刚好副符合风险投资“风险”一面的特点。能否发现并投资一个带有命律转移潜质的项目可以说是VC投资成功与否最重要的因素。 今天提到这个话题,就是源于最近与一些投资人交流时的真实感受,我发现国内很多VC如果作为产业投资者或是银行信贷人员是非常非常称职的,他们对于一个投资项目的分析有理有据,他们所关注的项目也往往是回报率高、风险低的项目。其实这些项目一看商业计划的摘要即可知道绝大多数是没有命律转移潜质的,这样做的结果是什么呢?只要回头看看国内几个主要风险投资机构的投资项目就清楚了,其实多数项目还都是赚钱的,完全失败的不多,特别成功的也很少,都是不痛不痒的项目。做为风险投资项目来衡量,这些项目都是失败的,其根源就在于这些项目已经失去了Paradigm Shift,如果风险投资人没有独到的眼光去发现含有命律转移潜质的项目,就绝对不是个称职的VC。能够发现具有Paradigm Shift特点有价值的投资项目,首先就要求投资者需要具有Paradigm Shift的潜质,自己要转变投资的思维习惯。当然,在投资机构的投资决策流程等方面也要符合Paradigm Shift的特点。其实很多时候,在投资机构反复讨论,并最终决策一个投资项目的时候,这个项目其实已经失去了投资价值。有非理性的一面,这就是风险投资的特点。      

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